DVT risk factors

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CancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. can lead to DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein.. What else might add to your risk?  

Active Therapy for CancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.

CancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. therapy itself has been shown to increase the risk for VTEVenous Thrombo Embolism. The formation of blood clots in the vein. When a clot forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg, it is called a deep vein thrombosis or DVT. If that clot breaks loose and travels to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary embolism or PE., including chemotherapyChemotherapy (also known as chemo) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or several drugs in combination., anti-angiogenic therapy, hormonal therapy, and erythropoietin-stimulating agents1. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, but it has been suggested that many of these therapeutic agents induce vascular damage2.

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Surgery 

ThrombosisThrombosis refers to abnormal, life-threatening blood clots that form in the artery or vein. is also a common complication of cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.-related surgery. The frequency of VTEVenous Thrombo Embolism. The formation of blood clots in the vein. When a clot forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg, it is called a deep vein thrombosis or DVT. If that clot breaks loose and travels to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary embolism or PE. in patients undergoing cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. surgery is roughly twice that seen in patients without malignancies who have similar operations3.

Hospitalisation

Hospitalisation is often associated with prolonged immobility (due to bedrest or recovery). This is a strong risk factor for cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.-associated thrombosisThrombosis refers to abnormal, life-threatening blood clots that form in the artery or vein.. In the hospitalised setting, the rate of VTEVenous Thrombo Embolism. The formation of blood clots in the vein. When a clot forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg, it is called a deep vein thrombosis or DVT. If that clot breaks loose and travels to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary embolism or PE. in cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. patients is twice that of non-cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. patients4.

Central Venous Catheters

Central venous catheters (CVC), commonly inserted for chemotherapyChemotherapy (also known as chemo) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or several drugs in combination., are also associated with a risk of VTEVenous Thrombo Embolism. The formation of blood clots in the vein. When a clot forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg, it is called a deep vein thrombosis or DVT. If that clot breaks loose and travels to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary embolism or PE.. The incidence of CVC-related deep vein thrombosisThrombosis refers to abnormal, life-threatening blood clots that form in the artery or vein. (DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein.) assessed by venography has been reported to vary from 30% to 60% but catheter-related DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein. in adult patients is symptomatic in only 5% of cases5.

The wide variability in the incidence of catheter-related thrombosisThrombosis refers to abnormal, life-threatening blood clots that form in the artery or vein. may be due to differences in catheter type, position, duration of insertion, type of malignancyA term often used with tumours. A malignant tumour = cancer. , and use of different chemotherapeutic agent6.

ObesityA medical condition marked by the accumulation of an excess amount of body fat that may have a negative effect on your health.

ObesityA medical condition marked by the accumulation of an excess amount of body fat that may have a negative effect on your health. is also an important risk factor for DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein./PEPulmonary Embolism (PE): The condition that describes when a piece of a blood clot breaks loose (embolus) and travels from its original location, through the heart and on to the lungs. in both men and women. Studies have shown that obese individuals have nearly twice the risk of both PEPulmonary Embolism (PE): The condition that describes when a piece of a blood clot breaks loose (embolus) and travels from its original location, through the heart and on to the lungs. and DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein.7.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and contraceptives

Many women use HRT Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): Treatment with hormones to replace natural hormones when the body is not producing sufficient amount or it is necessary to change the composition of hormones occurring in the body.treatments to alleviate the symptoms of menopause or osteoporosis. These medicines often contain a synthetic version of the hormone called oestrogen, which causes blood to clot more easily. Similarly, birth control methods like the combined contraceptive pill and contraceptive skin patch also contain oestrogen8

If you are already at risk for developing DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein. or undergoing treatment, be sure your doctor is aware of any HRT Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): Treatment with hormones to replace natural hormones when the body is not producing sufficient amount or it is necessary to change the composition of hormones occurring in the body.or contraceptive medication you are taking, so you can discuss what is right for you.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy can also increase the chances of developing DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein.. Pregnant woman can keep their risk at a minimum by watching out for and reducing other risk factors wherever possible. In particular, if you are on bed rest or generally moving slowly, talk with your doctor about types of exercises that can keep your blood flowing.

Other additional risk factors

There are other risk factors, but they are rare and less relevant for cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. patients. For example, some genetic diseases can trigger DVTDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): The condition that describes when a blood clot, or thrombus, develops in a deep vein. and these are usually only identified when a patient does not fit the usual profile (recent surgery or cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.). These diseases include rare Protein C, Protein S and Antithrombin III deficiencies.

Interested to know more? Watch our video which explains why the body makes blood clots



If you need more information about any of the above risk factors or conditions, please contact your doctor.

References

  1. Hogg K, Carrier M “Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.” Ther Adv Hematol 2011; 3 (1), p. 45-58.
  2. Blann A, Dunmore S. “Arterial and Venous ThrombosisThrombosis refers to abnormal, life-threatening blood clots that form in the artery or vein. in CancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. Patients”. Card Res Practice 2011; Article ID 394740.
  3. Rao B.B., Kalayarasan R, Kate V, Ananthakrishnan “Venous Thromboembolism in CancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery: Prevention and Management. ISRN Vasc Med 2012*; Article ID 783214.
  4. Piatek C., O`Connell C.L, Liebman H.A “Treating venous thromboembolism in patients with cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.” Expert Rev Hematol 2012, 5(2), p. 201-209.
  5. Debordeau P., Chahmi D.K, Zammit C., Farge-Bancel D. “ Venous thromboembolism associated with long-term use of central venous catheters in cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system. patients”. Pat Biol 2008; 56 p. 211-219.
  6. Lee A.Y.Y., Levine M.N., Butler G., Webb C., Constantini L., Gu C., Julian J.A. “Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of catheter-related thrombosisThrombosis refers to abnormal, life-threatening blood clots that form in the artery or vein. in adult patients with cancerA term for diseases in which cells grow abnormally with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system.” J Clin Oncol 2006; 24:p 1404-1408.
  7. Stein P.D., Beemath A., Olson R.E “ObesityA medical condition marked by the accumulation of an excess amount of body fat that may have a negative effect on your health. as a risk factor in venous thromboembolism” Am J Med 2005; 118, p. 978-980.
  8. Moheimani F., Jackson D.E “Venous thromboembolism: classification, risk factors, diagnosis and management. ISRN Hematol 2011, Article ID 124610.

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